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Francisco Pizarro’s Conquest of Peru

First of all, the image is from Libros y Lanzas and as a sign of respect and gratitude, we put here a link to their website. Photo by: Libros y Lanzas.

The history of the Spanish conquest of the Americas is replete with controversial and polemical episodes, and among them the figure of Francisco Pizarro stands out. His expedition and the fall of the Inca Empire marked a turning point in the history of South America. Pizarro’s conquest not only left an indelible mark on the physical landscape of the region, but also shaped the course of its political, social and cultural history, as did Hernán Cortés’ conquest of the Aztec Empire.

Francisco Pizarro, a man of humble origins born in Trujillo, Spain, emerged as a key figure in the conquest of Peru. Accompanied by a handful of brave and determined men, Pizarro embarked on a daring expedition into unknown Inca territory in 1532. His daring and tactical astuteness played a crucial role in the success of his enterprise.

Historical context

Pizarro’s conquest took place in a complex historical and geopolitical context. The Inca Empire, ruled by Atahualpa at the time, was experiencing internal tensions and power struggles. These internal divisions weakened the empire’s ability to resist the arrival of the Spanish.

One of the most notable events of the conquest was the encounter between Pizarro and Atahualpa in Cajamarca. Taking advantage of the Spaniards’ technological superiority and strategic astuteness, Pizarro managed to capture the Inca emperor with relative ease. This event marked the beginning of the end of the Inca Empire and opened the way for Spanish domination of the region.

However, Pizarro’s conquest was not without controversy and violence. The arrival of the Spaniards brought with it deadly diseases, such as smallpox, which decimated the indigenous population. In addition, the conquistadors’ exploitative policies and quest for wealth wreaked havoc on Inca society and led to the destruction of its ancient political and social structure.

Hero or Villain

The figure of Pizarro has been the subject of intense debate and analysis in modern historiography. Some see him as a bold and visionary hero who brought Western civilisation to unknown lands, while others see him as a ruthless conqueror who caused immense suffering to the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

It is important to recognise that Pizarro’s conquest had profound and lasting consequences for the history of Spanish America. The arrival of the Spanish not only transformed the political and cultural landscape of the region, but also led to the creation of a new mestizo identity that fused indigenous and European elements.

In addition, Pizarro’s conquest paved the way for Spanish colonisation in South America, laying the foundations for the emergence of viceroyalties and the systematic exploitation of the region’s natural resources. This colonisation left an indelible mark on Latin American society and culture, shaping its future development in complex and often conflicting ways.

However, it is essential to approach Pizarro’s conquest from a critical and reflexive perspective. While his expedition was a milestone in the history of Spanish America, it also represented the subjugation and suffering of millions of indigenous people who were victims of colonial violence and exploitation.

Consequences and conclusions

Today, the figure of Francisco Pizarro remains the subject of controversy and debate in Spanish America and beyond. His legacy is ambivalent, and his role in the region’s history continues to be evaluated and re-evaluated as a greater understanding of the complexities of the Spanish conquest and its lasting impacts develops.

In conclusion, Francisco Pizarro’s conquest represents a pivotal chapter in the history of the Americas and Spain. His expedition marked the beginning of Spanish colonisation in the region and had profound and lasting consequences for its indigenous inhabitants. However, it is important to approach this episode from a critical and reflective perspective, recognising both its achievements and its injustices and abuses. Only by doing so can we fully understand the legacy of the Spanish conquest and its impact on Latin American history and culture.

By | 2024-04-05T14:28:19+00:00 April 5th, 2024|History|0 Comments

The Conquest of the Aztec Empire by Hernán Cortés in Mexico

The conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés is a crucial episode in the history not only of Spain and Mexico itself, but of the entire world. This event marked a turning point in the history of the American continent, irreversibly altering the course of indigenous and European history. From its beginnings to its consequences, the conquest of Mexico is a subject of great complexity and controversy that continues to be the subject of study and debate to this day.


The historical context


To fully understand the conquest of Mexico, it is crucial to understand the historical context in which it occurred. In the early 16th century, the Aztec empire dominated much of Mesoamerica. Its capital, Tenochtitlán, was one of the largest and most sophisticated cities in the world at the time. However, the empire was plagued by internal conflicts and its hegemony was far from undisputed.

Spain, on the other hand, was in the throes of exploration and colonial expansion. In 1519, Hernán Cortés, born in Medellín, Extremadura, Spain, led an expedition to the New World with the aim of exploring and conquering new lands on behalf of the Spanish crown. An ambitious and cunning man, Cortés saw the Aztec empire as an opportunity for riches and glory.

Cortés’ arrival in Mexico

In February 1519, Hernán Cortés landed on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico with a small contingent of Spanish soldiers. From the outset, he faced a number of challenges, including resistance from local indigenous peoples and distrust from some of his own men. However, Cortés proved to be a charismatic and persuasive leader, able to hold his troops together and win the trust of indigenous allies who would prove key to the conquest.

One of the most emblematic moments of his arrival on American soil was the burning of Cortés’ ships near Veracruz. This radical act was a demonstration of determination and a clear message to his men: the only option was to advance and conquer, as there was no turning back.

The fall of Tenochtitlan


The climax of the conquest of Mexico was the fall of Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire. After a series of battles and strategic alliances with indigenous peoples who were enemies of the Aztecs, Cortés and his men laid siege to the city for several months. Finally, in August 1521, Tenochtitlán fell to the Spanish after an intense battle that left the city in ruins.


The conquest of Tenochtitlán was a remarkable military achievement, but it was also an act of brutality and destruction. The city was sacked and many of its inhabitants were killed or enslaved. The fall of Tenochtitlan marked the end of the Aztec empire and the beginning of Spanish rule in Mexico.

Consequences of the Conquest


The consequences of the conquest of Mexico were profound and long-lasting. First, the arrival of the Spanish led to the destruction of entire civilisations and the extermination of millions of indigenous people through war, disease and slavery. In addition, the conquest established Spanish rule in Mexico and laid the groundwork for three centuries of colonialism in the region.
The conquest also had important cultural and social repercussions. The arrival of the Spanish introduced new languages, religions and customs into Mexico, radically transforming the lives of the indigenous peoples. Many aspects of Aztec culture were suppressed or assimilated by Spanish culture, giving rise to a new mestizo identity in Mexico.

Legacy and controversy


The conquest of Mexico remains a subject of great controversy and debate today. For some, it is an event that marked the beginning of modern civilisation in Mexico and the rest of Spanish America. For others, it is a symbol of oppression and exploitation that still has a lasting impact on Mexican society.
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in re-evaluating the conquest of Mexico from an indigenous perspective. Many historians and activists have highlighted the role of indigenous peoples’ resistance to the Spanish invasion, as well as the continuing legacy of indigenous culture and identity in Mexico.


Ultimately, the conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés is a complex and multifaceted event that continues to resonate in the history and culture of Mexico and the world at large. It is a reminder of the profound and often devastating impacts that encounters between different cultures and civilisations can have, and the importance of learning from history in order to build a more just and equitable future.

By | 2024-04-02T08:21:38+00:00 April 2nd, 2024|History|0 Comments

Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to America: To the Unknown

At dawn on 3 August 1492, three ships bobbed gently in the waters off the port of Palos de la Frontera, Huelva, on the southwest coast of Spain. These ships, the Santa María, the Pinta and the Niña, marked the beginning of one of the most daring and momentous expeditions in human history: Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to America. This event would not only change the worldviews of the time, but also open a new chapter in the exploration and exchange between continents. The age of great discoveries was beginning.

Columbus, a stubborn seafarer

Christopher Columbus, a Genoese navigator convinced that the Earth was round, had devised a daring plan to reach Asia by sailing west from Europe. After years of attempts to obtain financial support, he finally obtained the backing of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon. So, on 3 August 1492, he set sail with a brave crew and a vision that would change the course of history.

The hardness of the trip

The crossing was not easy. The weeks in the Atlantic Ocean were long and discouraging. The crew, imbued with a sense of uncertainty and fear of the unknown, began to lose hope. Columbus, however, proved to be a tenacious and visionary leader. His ability to maintain the morale of the crew and his confidence in the enterprise were essential to overcoming the challenges.

Land in sight

And so, on 12 October 1492, after more than two months at sea, unknown lands were sighted. Columbus and his crew found themselves in front of an island in the Caribbean, which they would later christen San Salvador. This moment marked the initial encounter between the Old World and the New World, an event that would change global history and transform the way cultures related to each other.

The first encounter between Columbus and the inhabitants of these lands, the Tainos, was a fascinating but complex cultural exchange. Although both groups were initially curious about each other, linguistic and cultural differences created significant barriers. Columbus, with the persistent notion that he had arrived in Asia, called the natives “Indians”, a term that would erroneously prevail in the decades and centuries that followed.

The first settlement

The Spanish explorer continued his voyage, exploring several Caribbean islands, including Cuba and Hispaniola. The Santa Maria, however, ran aground off the coast of Hispaniola on 25 December 1492. Columbus left part of the crew at a settlement called La Navidad and returned to Spain on the Niña, carrying with him the news of his discovery. This incident, although a setback, did not diminish the impact of his achievement.

Return to Spain

Columbus’ return to Spain in March 1493 was greeted with enthusiasm. News of his success spread quickly throughout Europe, and Columbus was received as a hero. However, doubts persisted about the exact nature of his discoveries. Many believed he had reached a part of Asia, and it was not until later explorations that the magnitude of his discovery was realised.

Columbus’ first voyage to America marked the beginning of a period of intense exploration and colonisation. Other explorers, such as Amerigo Vespucci and Juan Ponce de Leon, followed in his footsteps, expanding European knowledge of the New World. As colonies were established and cultural exchanges took place, human history became more complex and connected than ever before.

Consequences of Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to America

However, the legacy of this first voyage is also marked by negative consequences. The arrival of Europeans in the Americas triggered a process of conquest and colonisation that had devastating impacts on the indigenous populations. The spread of disease, the exploitation of resources and the imposition of new social structures irreversibly changed the landscape of the Americas.

Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to the Americas was a momentous milestone that opened a new chapter in world history. His bold vision and determination led to a historic encounter between two previously separate worlds. While the impact of this voyage was immense, the complexity of its consequences and the price paid by the indigenous populations cannot be overlooked. This event continues to be the subject of reflection and debate today, reminding us of the importance of exploring history with a critical and sympathetic perspective.

By | 2024-02-27T12:13:28+00:00 February 27th, 2024|History|0 Comments

The Kingdom of León: Cradle of the Reconquest and Jewel of the Middle Ages

At the heart of the Iberian Peninsula, the Kingdom of León emerged as a beacon of culture, power and resistance during the Middle Ages. With a rich and indeed complex history, this kingdom defied the adversities of the times to become a crucial bastion in the struggle for the Reconquista against the Muslims.


Origins of the Kingdom of León


The foundations of the Kingdom of León were laid in the early years of the 9th century, at a time of maximum turmoil generated by the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. Originally, the Kingdom of Asturias functioned as Christian resistance to Islamic expansion. However, as the Christians gained ground in the mountainous area, a new kingdom was soon consolidated with León as its most prominent nucleus.

Pioneer Kings: Alfonso II and Ramiro I


Under the reign of Alfonso II, known as “the Chaste,” the city of Oviedo was established as the capital of the kingdom. Alfonso II also played a vital role in cultural expansion, promoting the construction of the church of San Salvador in Oviedo and encouraging artistic and literary development.
His successor, Ramiro I, continued the work of Alfonso II and consolidated the foundations of the kingdom. This period marked the transition from the Kingdom of Asturias to the Kingdom of León, establishing the foundations of what was to become one of the most important kingdoms on the peninsula.

The Splendour of the Kingdom of León: Alfonso III and Ordoño II


The 9th century witnessed a phase of splendour for the Kingdom of León under the rule of Alfonso III, who brought about the unification of the Christian territories on the peninsula and expanded the borders of his kingdom. During his reign, fortresses were erected and key regions repopulated, laying the foundations for the subsequent recovery of lands occupied by the Muslims.
Ordoño II, son of Alfonso III, continued the territorial expansion and consolidation of the kingdom. His rule was marked by the victory at the Battle of Valdejunquera, which reaffirmed the military capacity of the Kingdom of León and its determination in the Reconquest.

The Battle of Simancas and temporary deterioration


Despite its successes, the Kingdom of León faced significant challenges. The Battle of Simancas in 939, in which Ramiro II defeated Abd al-Rahman III, was an important milestone in the history of the kingdom. However, after this victory, the Kingdom of León entered a period of decline marked by internal conflicts and succession disputes between descendants.


Ferdinand I: Unifier and visionary


The resurgence of the Kingdom of León came with the figure of Ferdinand I, who assumed the throne in 1037. His reign was fundamental for the consolidation of the kingdom, as he achieved the unification of the Christian kingdoms of León and Castile, laying the foundations for the future Kingdom of León and Castile.

Cradle of the Reconquest: León as a religious and cultural focal point
The city of León stood out not only as a political centre, but also as a cultural and religious focus during the Middle Ages. León Cathedral, built in the 13th century, is a monumental testimony to the artistic and architectural wealth of the period. Its impressive stained-glass windows and Gothic architecture make it one of Spain’s most precious treasures.

The final decline

As the Middle Ages progressed, the Kingdom of León was affected by internal conflicts, invasions and territorial disputes. Political fragmentation and the division of the kingdom into different entities led to the progressive weakening of León’s power. In the 11th century, the Kingdom of León ceased to exist as an independent entity, merging with the Kingdom of Castile, which consolidated its position as the most important in the history of the foundation of the future Spain.

Legacy of the Kingdom of León: Historical and Artistic Heritage

Despite its political demise, the Kingdom of León left a lasting legacy. Its crucial role in the Reconquest and its contribution to culture, art and architecture are still evident today. The cathedral of León, the fortresses and the artistic manifestations of the period are tangible testimonies of the grandeur that once characterised this kingdom.

The Kingdom of León stands as a fascinating chapter in the history of the Iberian Peninsula. From its humble beginnings in the resistance against the Muslim invasion to its prominent role in the Reconquest, the Kingdom of León lives on in memory as a beacon of resistance, culture and medieval splendour. Its legacy lives on in the architectural and cultural heritage that adorns the region, reminding us of the importance of this forgotten kingdom in the history of Spain.

By | 2024-01-15T13:12:43+00:00 January 15th, 2024|History|0 Comments

The Origin of the Kingdom of Castile: Foundations of a Great History

When we speak of the Kingdom of Castile, we speak of an entity that played a crucial and determining role in shaping the history of the Iberian Peninsula and, therefore, of Spain. The roots of the Kingdom of Castile are deeply rooted in the Middle Ages. Its origins go back to a time when the Reconquest, the Christian struggle against the Muslim occupation of Iberia, shaped the geography and destiny of the region.

Historical Context: The Reconquest and the Border Territories

For much of the first millennium AD, the Iberian Peninsula witnessed the coexistence of the cultures of the three great monotheistic religions, Christian, Muslim and Jewish. However, in 711, the Muslim invasion marked the beginning of a period of Islamic domination that would last for almost eight centuries. The Reconquista, a process of land reclamation by the Christian kingdoms, began to take shape in the north of the peninsula.

Castile emerged as a border territorial entity during the 9th and 10th centuries in the so-called “Middle Mark”, a buffer region between the Christian and Muslim territories. The Middle Mark was an area of constant conflict, and the local lords, known as “comes”, played a key role in the defence and expansion of the Christian frontiers.

The Counts of Castile: Pioneers of the Reconquest

In this context, the counts of Castile played a crucial role in the struggle against Muslim rule. The figure of Fernán González, Count of Castile at the beginning of the 10th century, was fundamental in the consolidation of this territorial entity. His leadership in battles such as that of Simancas and his ability to maintain cohesion among the local lords laid the foundations for Castile’s independence and expansion.

Castile’s Autonomy: 11th and 12th Centuries

The 11th century saw the consolidation of Castile as an independent kingdom. In this period, Sancho III the Great, King of Pamplona, divided his kingdom among his sons, assigning Ferdinand I the County of Castile. The death of Alfonso VI in 1109 marked the complete independence of Castile, separating it from the neighbouring Kingdom of León.

During the 12th century, Ferdinand I’s successors, especially Alfonso VII, carried out a series of administrative reforms that strengthened Castilian institutions. The creation of the first courts and the promulgation of the Charter of León are examples of this process. The connection with the Church was also fundamental, with the creation of the diocese of Burgos in 1075.

The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa and the Christian Advance

The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, dated 1212, was a crucial milestone in the Reconquista and had profound implications for Castile. The Christian victory in this battle marked the decline of Almohad power on the Iberian Peninsula and opened the door to southward expansion. Castile, under the reign of Alfonso VIII, contributed significantly to this victory, consolidating its position as a key kingdom in the struggle against Muslim rule.

The Union of Castile and León: 13th Century

The 13th century saw the union of the kingdoms of Castile and León under the Crown of Ferdinand III. The conquest of important cities such as Cordoba and Seville further extended the territories under his control. The mixture of diplomatic, military and religious efforts during this period contributed to the creation of an increasingly powerful kingdom and laid the foundations for the future Spain as we know it today.

Legado y Conclusiones

El origen del Reino de Castilla es inseparable de la historia de la Reconquista y la lucha contra la ocupación musulmana en la península ibérica. Desde sus modestos inicios como un condado fronterizo, Castilla evolucionó hasta convertirse en un reino independiente y, eventualmente, en un actor clave en la configuración de la España medieval. Su influencia perdura en la actualidad, no solo en términos de legado histórico, sino también en la contribución a la identidad y la diversidad cultural de la nación española y de toda Iberoamérica. La historia del Reino de Castilla es un fascinante capítulo de la Edad Media, marcado por la tenacidad, la estrategia y la determinación de aquellos que labraron el camino hacia un futuro que trascendería las fronteras del tiempo.

By | 2023-12-21T14:58:43+00:00 December 21st, 2023|History|0 Comments
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