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About Dean Swift

‘Dean Swift’ is a pen name: the author has been a soldier; he has worked in sales, TV, the making of films, as a teacher of English and history and a journalist. He is married with three grown-up children. They live in Spain.

Brief History of Australia Day

Australia Day is a national holiday in this small continent. It is celebrated on January 26 every year. The date marks Australia’s many great achievements, including its multicultural history to its current feats of science and technology. It’s an opportunity for Aussies (and everyone who feels that way) to gather and celebrate their national holiday and culture.

This day is rooted in the confederacy of Australia and honours its connection with Great Britain. For decades, that was a long and complicated relationship. The Crown had some controversial decisions that left a deep mark in the history of this continent. The outcomes of some of them are still being felt today.

January 26 is also when everyone living in The Land Down Under sums up their impressions and appreciate the benefits of being an Aussie. Many are grateful for the opportunity to be an Australian and live in this wonderful country of unique and rich culture. Various celebrations, formal ceremonies, and time spent with dear people are just some ways to mark Australia Day.

But, did you hear of Invasion or Mourning Day? Maybe a Survival Day? These are all synonyms used for this date, and they don’t have a good connotation. If you check Australia Day resources, you’ll see these terms prevail among the Aboriginal population and those who don’t have a nice opinion of the holiday celebrated on January 26.

Historical Facts You Should Know

Although the official history of Australia covers the period of colonization, this continent has been known since before. Before the arrival of the English, these shores were explored by Dutch sailors in the seventeenth century.

In fact, these explorers discovered Australian land by accident when the ships veered off course. It was then that this continent was actually mapped for the first time. The first to actually ‘conquer’ this country was James Cook in 1770.

This British adventurer and navigator declared Australia a British colony. That was great news for the Crown, as the British authorities were looking for new territories to send prisoners. Jails in Britain were overcrowded, so sending the convicts overseas was one way to cut the criminal. Also, the colonies got cheap labour, which sped up their progress.

This practice began about ten years later. The eight ships full of prisoners arrived in Australia in 1788, in mid-January. For them, it was an opportunity to start a new life from scratch. The population grew rapidly, and the Crown rewarded the merits of the settlers with the land. The young colony flourished.

Settlement or Invasion

Most nations in Australia are celebrating the anniversary of the arrival of the first settlers on this land. But this holiday has another side. On this day, Aboriginal people remember the victims, the land, the dignity, and everything that has been taken away from them since the first colonists came.

The English captain Arthur Philip first unfolded the flag of the British Empire in one of the inaccessible bays of today’s Sydney on January 26, 1788. After more than two centuries, that causes a division among modern Australians.

Many controversies have developed around this date because the story of the first settlement has two sides. On one are the colonists, and on the other the ingenious Australians, the Aboriginal people. Here are some amazing facts you should know about these people.

Why Aboriginal People Mourn This Day?

While the first arrival on the new mainland was perceived as a chance for development and economic prosperity, the natives saw the settlers as a threat. And they were right. English brought many benefits to the Australian mainland. But they also brought the issues and vices of the modern world.

The settlers began persecuting and oppressing the natives. Due to their dark skin and an unknown language, they considered Aboriginal an inferior race. English took their land and forcibly assimilated younger people and kids. Natives who offered the greatest resistance ended up as slaves or killed. As you can see, these are the main reasons why indigenous people in Australia don’t want to glorify January 26.

What causes many controversies is how different nations view the date that marks the arrival of the first settlers. Nowadays, there is more and more talk that another date would be more appropriate. With the arrival of the English immigrants in the 18th century, the great suffering of Aboriginal people began.

The Search for a National Holiday

Since the first settlers arrived at the territory of New South Wales, to the Botany Bay, this province (later state) was the first to start marking the landing date of ships. NSW government decided to mark the thirtieth anniversary (1818), followed by the fiftieth anniversary (1838).

On the centenary of the arrival, all states and major cities (except Adelaide) accepted this date, calling it Anniversary Day. By then, Australia was building and developing at a rapid pace. People worldwide saw a chance for a new life in the new territory. The number of migrations has grown. The population of Australia became diverse.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, from January 1, 1901, Australia became independent of the British Crown. For the Aboriginal nation, this meant the beginning of certain changes. Yet, they knew that the established practice wouldn’t be easily abandoned. Violent assimilation and adoption of aboriginal kids continued under the excuse that this is being done for their better future.

For more information about the ‘Stolen generations,’ check the page below:

https://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/politics/stolen-generations/a-guide-to-australias-stolen-generations

The 150th anniversary of the settlement, it was widely celebrated. Authorities forced Aboriginal people to join the celebrations. The plan was to reconstruct the first landing, but a problem arose because there were different versions of that event. Since 1938, Aboriginal people have been protesting every January 26. Even today, they ask for the abolition of the national holiday or at least marking it on another date.

Despite many controversies, Australia today is a democratic country. All people enjoy human rights guaranteed by its highest legal act. The Land Down Under needs a day when those who built modern country will mark their arrival. Only the date should be more appropriate.

By | 2021-03-23T08:39:19+00:00 March 23rd, 2021|History|0 Comments

Have humans always suffered from back pain?

Back pain is as common as any health condition you can come across. Even
when undiagnosed, many of us put up with it for years, not knowing how to deal with it. Of course, there are incredibly advanced spine surgery procedures that can help us out, but not everyone considers their mild-to-discomforting daily, on-going pain as a cause for surgery (although what many don’t realise is how impressively non-invasive spine surgery can be nowadays).

Contemporary causes of back pain

An intellectual economy – the digitalisation of the labour market – has really
changed our behaviours and bodies on a mass scale. Sitting down all day, every day, is not good for us. Where it was once only high paying professional jobs that were in a nice, warm office working 9 to 5, now even the low paying ones are.

There are so many of us sitting down and working on computers that ergonomic design can barely keep up with the issues that this causes.

Even switching to manual work is not suitable for our bodies. Lifting heavy things and bending down for unnaturally long periods of the day is perhaps an even worse strain on the lower back. Muscle and ligament strain can grow more serious over time. It can be very difficult to get the right balance between physical activity and sedentary activity.

Many of us put our back issues down to lifestyle. However, is it lifestyle alone? Can we yoga stretch our way out of these problems?

Is our evolution to blame?

The World Health Organisation still considers the source of lower back pain to be obscure, as it’s difficult to pinpoint its onset. Researchers are now suggesting that our evolution may be to blame.

Our human ancestors walked on all fours, which aided them in climbing and moving around in diverse habitats. It was only around 4 million years ago that we became partially bipedal, and 1.9 million years ago that we became fully bipedal. The very rapid evolution led to a curved spine that isn’t quite fit for holding us constantly upright and lifting heavy objects. It’s well researched that our cousin apes that walk on all-fours have less lower back pain, due to less stress on the lower back.

It’s the spines of animals similar to chimps that tend to have a small lesion that can form between the vertebrae in a disc, which causes back issues.

Overcoming our natural disadvantages

Back pain can be hereditary, it can from an accident, arthritis, and a variety of other circumstances. These are difficult to prevent, but in many cases, lower back pain can be overcome, despite it being increasingly seen as an evolutionary flaw.

Maintaining a good posture is crucial. You can get advice on correct posture from an appropriate therapist, or even find help online. On top of this, we should diversify our behaviour. We shouldn’t stand or sit for too long, but alternating between the two is good. If we work sitting down, we should stretch and talk a short walk every hour or so. This leads to huge improvements for many people.

It’s always preferable to avoid spine surgery where less aggressive solutions are possible, but when those solutions are not successful, surgery can be life changing for many people.

By | 2020-01-08T12:33:54+00:00 January 8th, 2020|History|1 Comment

Writing an Excellent Essay for History Homework

Title: Writing an Excellent Essay for History Homework

Ever wanted to know how to write a good essay for your history homework? A lot of students do not realise there is a structure. We are going to tell you all about it.

History Homework Help for Students

Are you a history student? Then you will already know how much homework you get every semester. Of course, as a social subject, there are always essays and papers to write for history. But sometimes you could do with a little help when it comes to making it good and ensuring you get a fantastic grade.

So, how do you write an essay for history home? Well, let’s find out.

Think About the Question

First of all, you need to spend some time thinking about the history question and what it is asking you to do. Pick out the keywords from the question. This is going to be your starting point. For example, there should be a clear topic and an instruction, such as ‘argue’ or ‘explain’. It is often the case that you have to pick a side or agree or disagree with the question. Think about what side you want to be on and stick to it when you do your research. It can also be beneficial to create a thesis statement. This is going to announce to your readers what you plan to do during the essay.

Focus on Quality Research

A history essay requires quality sources in order to back up your arguments. In particular, you will have the choice of using primary or secondary sources for your research. Most of the time, this will revolve around secondary materials, such as informational from historians commenting on the topic. But there will be some occasions when primary sources are beneficial. This is information that was created at the time of the events, such as a photograph or film. Always stay away from unreliable sources when you are writing your history homework, especially from the internet.

Take Notes and Make an Outline

Before starting your homework assignment, write down notes from your research. This is going to help you formulate an essay outline. This is going to be what you follow when you are writing your final essay. A lot of students rush into writing their paper without thinking about the sections they want to have. This is often how to get an essay that is mixed up and all over the place. So, take your time and create notes for your introduction, main body, and conclusion. If you do struggle to write your homework, you can always buy an essay online in Canada.

Construct Your Argument

The point of history homework is not only to answer the question but to also demonstrate your knowledge and research on the subject. This can be shown by constructing a good argument, using your facts to back up the points you want to make. You should make sure to split your arguments into different paragraphs so that they are easy to read, having a concluding sentence at the end of each. Be sure not to stray away from your thesis statement.

Do Not Forget the Conclusion

A lot of students are so glad to finish the history homework that they forget to write the conclusion. But this is one of the most important parts. This should summarise your main points and repeat your thesis statement. Always make sure you answer the question and state your opinion.

By | 2019-03-11T09:51:18+00:00 March 11th, 2019|History|0 Comments

The History of Business Cards

When Johannes Gutenberg introduced printing to Europe thanks to the invention of the printing press (15th century), nobody could imagine that this new machine would bring so many useful supplies and equipment, such as what we now call business cards. These presentation cards had even more meaning on the 17th century when they were created and so widely used. I bet not even Johannes Gutenberg, a German blacksmith, goldsmith and inventor could imagine that nowadays we could all buy thousands or millions of business cards from home thanks to a new service we now call: Online Printing.

As we said, on the 17th century business cards were widely used, of course not as much as today, but the vast majority of aristocrats in Europe had their own. They were more or less the size of a poker card of the 21st century, and sometimes the cards were engraved with gold and typefaces.

The 17th century visiting cards would be presented by aristocrat footmen to the servants at the home of a host to announce the arrival of a distinguished guest. And as we said, there were decorated with ornaments and sometimes elegant coat of arms.

By the 19th century, many more people started using them and in some houses it was a ‘must have’ thing, as a part of the century´s protocol. Many high class houses had silver card trays on the hall table along with a pencil and a piece of paper. Whenever somebody came they had to leave their cards there and therefore, in the future, it served as a catalog of those who had visited the house before.

According to Convey, during the Industrial era … ” with the rise of the middle class, a decrease in social formality, and more efficient modern printing techniques, visiting cards and trade cards eventually merged into the precursor to our modern business card. The “business card” became a must have item across both Europe and the United States. This shift, however, was not always smooth. Many in the upper class resisted this merger, creating awkward cultural and social divides. “

But what happened next, in the 20th century? Well as you might imagine, business cards became absolutely essential both for important people and all kind of companies. Every customer would ask for your business card and it would be very weird if your company or brand wouldn’t have one by the 1950’s. It became the established norm even for small businesses and corporate executives.

By the 1980’s a whole culture arose around business cards, nobody could leave home without carrying their own personal or brand business cards, there is even a scene in the American Psycho movie that represents the contagious lunacy that every business man suffered towards business cards.

But the point here is that it is now easier than ever to create the most trendy, fashionable and amazing business cards without having to resort to expensive printing professionals. You just have to make your own design with programs like Photoshop or look for an online printing company like HelloPrint to get the most amazing designs ever, and receive as many copies as you want directly at your home or office.

By | 2019-01-20T13:26:46+00:00 January 20th, 2019|History|1 Comment

Spine problems?

Human beings have suffered spine problems throughout the ages. Fossilized evidence of bone straightening exists and the ancient Greeks perfected this art. Therefore, spine surgery is not new, whether used to correct back deformities in children or because some kind of surgical procedure was necessary. This was a far cry from the spine surgery we use today but it shows that we have always understood that bones can be straightened and corrected. (more…)

By | 2018-11-08T12:08:20+00:00 November 8th, 2018|History|0 Comments

Cosmetic Surgery and its Place in Modern Society

People have been concerned about their appearance from the beginning of recorded history. It might sound surprising, but cosmetic surgery has been around for centuries. The tools and methods may differ, but physicians have always searched for ways to make changes to the body of individuals who want a different look. Most of the procedures we see today have been in existence for many years. Their purpose is the same as it used to be, what has changed throughout the years are the tools and the methods used. For example, tattoos and piercings have been popular for centuries; injections and stitching were used to give the body a beautiful and smoother look, and were the beginning of cosmetic surgery. On the other hand, non-invasive surgery came into existence as a medical treatment which made it unnecessary to cut open the body during surgery, for example, non-invasive back surgery is a surgical procedure recommended for patients who suffer chronic neck or back pain. A degenerated painful disc is replaced with a new artificial one. The aim of this procedure is for the patient to regain a normal lifestyle.  In Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR), no bones are cut.

Different types of cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery, are different, however, they are closely related. They both deal with improving a patient’s appearance but their underlying principles are different.

Cosmetic surgery is focused solely on enhancing a person’s physical appearance. This can be performed on all areas of the body including the neck and head. Within the scope of cosmetic surgery are body contouring: liposuction, tummy tuck; facial rejuvenation: brow, neck, eyelids, and facelifts; breast enhancement: lifting, reduction; facial contouring: cheek, or chin enhancement, rhinoplasty; skin rejuvenation: Botox, filler treatments, and laser resurfacing.

Plastic surgery deals with repairing birth defects, reconstruction of normal functions and appearance. Some of these defects are caused by disease, trauma, burns, and birth abnormalities. Basically, the aim of plastic surgery is to correct dysfunctional areas of the human body; therefore, it is reconstructive. Plastic surgeons can perform cosmetic surgery, but they tend to specialize in reconstructive plastic surgery. In 1999, the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons adopted the name American Society of Plastic Surgeons to emphasize the fact that plastic and reconstructive surgery is the same. Some examples of the procedures these surgeons perform are: hand surgery, burn repair surgery, breast reconstruction, lower limb reconstruction, breast reconstruction, congenital defect repair: limb defect repair and cleft palate.

The first cosmetic surgery

As time passed, doctors incorporated cosmetic surgery as a part of plastic surgery. Therefore, cosmetic surgery was born out of reconstructive surgery. This all began in central Asia. Asian physicians used most of the methods used in rhinoplasty today to beautify the shape of the noses of royal family members. Sushruta, an ancient Indian healer, was supposedly one of the first cosmetic surgeons in the world. He was the first person to perform skin grafting around the 6th century BC. He used a piece of skin from another body part to graft on the face to enhance and correct a person’s appearance.

By | 2018-06-26T16:21:11+00:00 June 12th, 2018|History|0 Comments

Henry M. Stanley, explorer and journalist

Henry M. Stanley, explorer and journalist

Stanley with a bearer carring his favourite shooting stick / literaturadeviajes.com

Stanley with a bearer carring his favourite shooting stick / literaturadeviajes.com

One is not too sure that modern schoolchildren are taught about persons like Henry Stanley, or for that matter Dr. Livingstone, with whom Stanley is inextricably connected. It is supposed that vast changes in syllabus are responsible for this, just as in the Classics, neither Latin or Greek are these days awarded much importance. At my school we were unfailingly taught that Henry Stanley was American; he was a naturalized American citizen for a period, but he was born British – Welsh in fact – son of a farmer from that region. He was also illegitimate, and was first called John Rowlands.

Stanley lived a life so adventurous it seemed to be fiction stemming from the Boys Own Paper. Born in 1841 he existed, somehow, in a poorhouse from 1847 to 1856, got away and managed to get himself on a ship sailing to the United States. Here he was luckily befriended by a merchant in cereals who adopted him. Young Henry also took the merchant’s name – Stanley, and after adoption automatically became an American citizen. (more…)

By | 2019-10-15T08:34:10+00:00 September 23rd, 2015|African History, British History, US History, World History|0 Comments

Further thoughts on the SS

/ germaniainternational.com

/ germaniainternational.com

The Schützstaffel was a more or less elite special force created by the National Socialist Party in 1925 for the ‘special protection’ of Adolf Hitler. The name means ‘defence group’, and the significance of its actions is that the force was hated even more within Germany than among her enemies. At first, the SS was a small part of the SA, or Sturm Abteilung, a much bigger Nazi paramilitary organisation, formed to break up dissident political meetings and distribute Nazi propaganda. The SA had played a very big part in the ascent of Hitler to power; its leader was an old-time friend of Hitler’s called Ernst Rohm, but when the SA became, according to the Fuhrer and his associates, too big for its boots, it was dealt with by simply murdering its leaders, including Hitler’s old friend. Most of the summary executions were carried out by the SS. (more…)

By | 2015-09-22T16:51:01+00:00 September 22nd, 2015|German History|0 Comments

Another message from Jeremy Taylor

The author / apaisada.com

The author / apaisada.com

You can read a book (at the risk of your eyesight) off your computer screen, or you can have it read to you by some famous actor; you can beg, borrow or steal a book from a friend – in my case the last verb is the most appropriate – or you may, just possibly prefer to buy the book to keep among all the others in your bookshelf. This kind of printed book is what you take to bed with you, where you read it chapter after chapter with your head nicely rested on your pillows and that reading light you found at Ikea providing the light. Or you can seat yourself in a favourite armchair after choosing a real book from a vast library or a modest collection.

General History is available to just about everywhere on this planet by going to Amazon Books, clicking on Books, and then typing ‘Jeremy Taylor-General-History’ or ‘Dean Swift-General-History’. Click on this and all three volumes (there will soon be a fourth) will appear on your screen. Then choose how you will buy it (at remarkably low cost), and very soon you will have 99% of the articles or posts published on-line, in printed book mode, to keep for ever.

Very best wishes, yours ever, Jeremy Taylor.

By | 2016-06-07T21:34:20+00:00 September 16th, 2015|Today, World History|3 Comments

A bracing brace of Bentincks

3rd Duke of Portland / alaintruong.com

3rd Duke of Portland / alaintruong.com

Hans Willem, Baron Bentinck was born in the middle of the seventeenth century. An aristocrat by birth, he served as a page to the Stadholder (q.v.) William. Surviving his master’s customary bad humour, he became a confidant, friend and agent to the future King William III of England. We have already described how a Dutchman became king of England in another volume of General History, so suffice it to say that William was married to Mary, who descended from Mary Queen of Scots. Thanks to the treachery of Marlborough and others, the rightful monarch of England, James II, was requested to leave, which he did, and William and Mary became joint rulers of England. The good Baron Bentinck came with them.

In fact it was thanks to Bentinck that the marriage between the Stadholder and Princess Mary ( a daughter of James VII and II of Scotland and England ) came about, as he negotiated the terms. Not only that, but the plans for a minor invasion of England by William of Holland in 1688 were supervised by Bentinck. Minor became major, James II ran off to Catholic France, and surly William the Stadholder mounted the English throne accompanied by his wife, who was not blessed with good looks. Once William was installed he rewarded his faithful confidant by making him the Ist Duke of Portland (1689). The ‘Glorious Revolution’ had been achieved with little bloodshed, and the name Bentinck began to ring through British political history. Hans Willem died in 1709. (more…)

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