Brief History of Australia Day

Australia Day is a national holiday in this small continent. It is celebrated on January 26 every year. The date marks Australia’s many great achievements, including its multicultural history to its current feats of science and technology. It’s an opportunity for Aussies (and everyone who feels that way) to gather and celebrate their national holiday and culture.

This day is rooted in the confederacy of Australia and honours its connection with Great Britain. For decades, that was a long and complicated relationship. The Crown had some controversial decisions that left a deep mark in the history of this continent. The outcomes of some of them are still being felt today.

January 26 is also when everyone living in The Land Down Under sums up their impressions and appreciate the benefits of being an Aussie. Many are grateful for the opportunity to be an Australian and live in this wonderful country of unique and rich culture. Various celebrations, formal ceremonies, and time spent with dear people are just some ways to mark Australia Day.

But, did you hear of Invasion or Mourning Day? Maybe a Survival Day? These are all synonyms used for this date, and they don’t have a good connotation. If you check Australia Day resources, you’ll see these terms prevail among the Aboriginal population and those who don’t have a nice opinion of the holiday celebrated on January 26.

Historical Facts You Should Know

Although the official history of Australia covers the period of colonization, this continent has been known since before. Before the arrival of the English, these shores were explored by Dutch sailors in the seventeenth century.

In fact, these explorers discovered Australian land by accident when the ships veered off course. It was then that this continent was actually mapped for the first time. The first to actually ‘conquer’ this country was James Cook in 1770.

This British adventurer and navigator declared Australia a British colony. That was great news for the Crown, as the British authorities were looking for new territories to send prisoners. Jails in Britain were overcrowded, so sending the convicts overseas was one way to cut the criminal. Also, the colonies got cheap labour, which sped up their progress.

This practice began about ten years later. The eight ships full of prisoners arrived in Australia in 1788, in mid-January. For them, it was an opportunity to start a new life from scratch. The population grew rapidly, and the Crown rewarded the merits of the settlers with the land. The young colony flourished.

Settlement or Invasion

Most nations in Australia are celebrating the anniversary of the arrival of the first settlers on this land. But this holiday has another side. On this day, Aboriginal people remember the victims, the land, the dignity, and everything that has been taken away from them since the first colonists came.

The English captain Arthur Philip first unfolded the flag of the British Empire in one of the inaccessible bays of today’s Sydney on January 26, 1788. After more than two centuries, that causes a division among modern Australians.

Many controversies have developed around this date because the story of the first settlement has two sides. On one are the colonists, and on the other the ingenious Australians, the Aboriginal people. Here are some amazing facts you should know about these people.

Why Aboriginal People Mourn This Day?

While the first arrival on the new mainland was perceived as a chance for development and economic prosperity, the natives saw the settlers as a threat. And they were right. English brought many benefits to the Australian mainland. But they also brought the issues and vices of the modern world.

The settlers began persecuting and oppressing the natives. Due to their dark skin and an unknown language, they considered Aboriginal an inferior race. English took their land and forcibly assimilated younger people and kids. Natives who offered the greatest resistance ended up as slaves or killed. As you can see, these are the main reasons why indigenous people in Australia don’t want to glorify January 26.

What causes many controversies is how different nations view the date that marks the arrival of the first settlers. Nowadays, there is more and more talk that another date would be more appropriate. With the arrival of the English immigrants in the 18th century, the great suffering of Aboriginal people began.

The Search for a National Holiday

Since the first settlers arrived at the territory of New South Wales, to the Botany Bay, this province (later state) was the first to start marking the landing date of ships. NSW government decided to mark the thirtieth anniversary (1818), followed by the fiftieth anniversary (1838).

On the centenary of the arrival, all states and major cities (except Adelaide) accepted this date, calling it Anniversary Day. By then, Australia was building and developing at a rapid pace. People worldwide saw a chance for a new life in the new territory. The number of migrations has grown. The population of Australia became diverse.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, from January 1, 1901, Australia became independent of the British Crown. For the Aboriginal nation, this meant the beginning of certain changes. Yet, they knew that the established practice wouldn’t be easily abandoned. Violent assimilation and adoption of aboriginal kids continued under the excuse that this is being done for their better future.

For more information about the ‘Stolen generations,’ check the page below:


The 150th anniversary of the settlement, it was widely celebrated. Authorities forced Aboriginal people to join the celebrations. The plan was to reconstruct the first landing, but a problem arose because there were different versions of that event. Since 1938, Aboriginal people have been protesting every January 26. Even today, they ask for the abolition of the national holiday or at least marking it on another date.

Despite many controversies, Australia today is a democratic country. All people enjoy human rights guaranteed by its highest legal act. The Land Down Under needs a day when those who built modern country will mark their arrival. Only the date should be more appropriate.

By | 2021-07-20T15:50:32+00:00 March 23rd, 2021|History|0 Comments

Have humans always suffered from back pain?

Back pain is as common as any health condition you can come across. Even
when undiagnosed, many of us put up with it for years, not knowing how to deal with it. Of course, there are incredibly advanced spine surgery procedures that can help us out, but not everyone considers their mild-to-discomforting daily, on-going pain as a cause for surgery (although what many don’t realise is how impressively non-invasive spine surgery can be nowadays).

Contemporary causes of back pain

An intellectual economy – the digitalisation of the labour market – has really
changed our behaviours and bodies on a mass scale. Sitting down all day, every day, is not good for us. Where it was once only high paying professional jobs that were in a nice, warm office working 9 to 5, now even the low paying ones are.

There are so many of us sitting down and working on computers that ergonomic design can barely keep up with the issues that this causes.

Even switching to manual work is not suitable for our bodies. Lifting heavy things and bending down for unnaturally long periods of the day is perhaps an even worse strain on the lower back. Muscle and ligament strain can grow more serious over time. It can be very difficult to get the right balance between physical activity and sedentary activity.

Many of us put our back issues down to lifestyle. However, is it lifestyle alone? Can we yoga stretch our way out of these problems?

Is our evolution to blame?

The World Health Organisation still considers the source of lower back pain to be obscure, as it’s difficult to pinpoint its onset. Researchers are now suggesting that our evolution may be to blame.

Our human ancestors walked on all fours, which aided them in climbing and moving around in diverse habitats. It was only around 4 million years ago that we became partially bipedal, and 1.9 million years ago that we became fully bipedal. The very rapid evolution led to a curved spine that isn’t quite fit for holding us constantly upright and lifting heavy objects. It’s well researched that our cousin apes that walk on all-fours have less lower back pain, due to less stress on the lower back.

It’s the spines of animals similar to chimps that tend to have a small lesion that can form between the vertebrae in a disc, which causes back issues.

Overcoming our natural disadvantages

Back pain can be hereditary, it can from an accident, arthritis, and a variety of other circumstances. These are difficult to prevent, but in many cases, lower back pain can be overcome, despite it being increasingly seen as an evolutionary flaw.

Maintaining a good posture is crucial. You can get advice on correct posture from an appropriate therapist, or even find help online. On top of this, we should diversify our behaviour. We shouldn’t stand or sit for too long, but alternating between the two is good. If we work sitting down, we should stretch and talk a short walk every hour or so. This leads to huge improvements for many people.

It’s always preferable to avoid spine surgery where less aggressive solutions are possible, but when those solutions are not successful, surgery can be life changing for many people.

By | 2021-07-20T15:50:41+00:00 January 8th, 2020|History|1 Comment

The history of Golf in Spain

The Spanish Federation of Golf was founded in a private home on October 9, 1932. But Golf itself had been present in Spain for several decades already. In fact, the first golf club in Spain was founded in the island of Gran Canaria in 1891 ! Since then, many golf clubs opened and especially in Andalusia where today there are 92 golf courses, more than any other region in Spain. The country has 424 golf courses, one fifth of them are in Andalusia, which is remarkable.

So the British brought the sport to Spain on the XIX century and created the first Golf Club in Gran Canaria in 1891 in ‘Lomo del Polvo’ but they also had intentions to create another one in the Spanish peninsula. In 1904 the second Golf Club in Spain was created in Madrid, it was called the Madrid Polo Golf Club but it changed its location from Cuarenta Fanegas to Puerta de Hierro. The name also changed to Real Club Puerta de Hierro and it was here where very soon they started organizing the first official Golf tournaments in Spain.

Perhaps the third club in Spain was the Club de Golf de San Sebastián in the Basque Country. Then on 1916 the Real Club de Zarauz was created to complete the Golf offer in Spain before the 1920’s alongside with the Real Club de Golf de El Prat in Catalonia.

The first Golf Club in Andalusia was created in 1925 in the hands of the ‘Club de Campo de Málaga’ and since then Andalusia has created more golf clubs than any other autonomous community in Spain. In Andalusia there is a special place when it comes to Golf and luxury, Sotogrande. Golf in Sotogrande is the most important thing. There is a magnificent Golf Club called La Reserva Club Sotogrande, perhaps the best golf course in Andalusia and maybe in Spain, a club that is linked to the story of Joseph McMicking.

Joseph McMicking was on General MacArthur’s staff during World War II and a Colonel in the United States Army. After the war he became a millionaire after succeding with his companies in California. As a visionary, Joseph sent a close friend to explore the world in search for the most perfect spot for a golf course, he wanted a place with plenty of sun, unspoilt beaches and easy airport access. He found that place in Sotogrande, Andalusia, Spain.

On current days, Spain has 269,600 golf licenses, 1,600 of which are professionals. Andalusia is the region with the most amount of golf clubs with 92 followed by Catalonia and Castilly y León with 40, Comunidad Valenciana with 36, Madrid with 33 and the Canary Islands with 23 ! Spain has produced many professional golfers that have ended up being succesful world wide: Sergio García, Jon Rahm, Larrazabal, Miguel Ángel Jiménez, Jose María Olazabal, Severianos Ballesteros or Álvaro Velasco are only some of the names that Spain has offered to the world competitions.

By | 2021-07-20T15:50:48+00:00 October 7th, 2019|History|0 Comments

Gold vs. Bitcoin from a historical perspective

3D graphics image by Quince Creative (https://quincemedia.com/)

Bitcoin is doing well. There has been a surge in the market and many predict a Bull market in the near future. As bitcoin successfully continues to argue for its value a question has risen among its many believers. Can bitcoin really challenge the king of currency i.e. gold as the number one store of value? This discussion has been on-going for quite some time and voices on opposite sides of the fence, i.e. sceptics and believers have both been presenting compelling cases. The sceptics on one hand argues that gold still holds prominence due to its physical nature while the believers favours the online characteristics of cryptocurrency. Still, the battle rages on and several sources on the internet tries to provide traders with information that will allow for further discussion to continue. On this website for instance, it is possible to get a crash-course in cryptocurrency to learn how to be successful in the trading game. It is absolutely worth having a look as information is key when it comes to trading bitcoin as well as comparing it to gold, all in order to determine which of the two holds more value. Why is then bitcoin being put forward as a serious contender to gold? It’s time to take a look. 

A new student in the asset class?

Gold has been the number one store of value since first discovered and has had little rivalry since. Until now. A new asset class has risen and it is challenging not only gold but also other derivatives that are being traded, namely bitcoin. In order to understand the rivalry, it is important to look at certain key aspects. From a historical point of view, people have been unable to devaluate gold as it has always been vertically impossible to recreate. Bitcoin then has already had its absolute quantity established, i.e. 21 million original coins. Hypothetically there could be a crash of the market if there suddenly became an increase of gold flooding it, but this is to date highly unlikely. Bitcoin on the other hand is part of an almost fool-proof system due to the decentralization and use of Blockchain methodology. When it comes to the transportation of the commodities, bitcoin moves with ease due to its nature as a cryptocurrency while gold is still a physical entity that requires being forcibly moved from one owner to another. At its very nature then, it is thought that gold can be stolen while bitcoin cannot.

And the winner is…

Will bitcoin then ever replace gold as the number one store of value? Well the believers certainly think so, placing emphasis on the fact that in contrast to gold, it can never be stolen. The sceptics on the other hand argues that gold, being the precious metal that it is, will always hold its prominent place as the number one relevant monetary asset. Based on characteristics such as durability, intrinsic value and means of transportation, sceptics say that bitcoin will never compete with gold. However, and perhaps for the first time, bitcoin is starting to sway more sceptics than ever based on the current surge in market value, asserting itself as a stable new asset class and being a serious competitor to gold. 

By | 2021-07-20T15:50:55+00:00 May 28th, 2019|History|1 Comment

Edinburgh’s history and Castles

As many of you might imagine, Edinburgh was a fort in the middle ages. The name of the city dates back to the 7th century when the English captured this part of Scotland and called it Eiden’s burgh (this last word is an old word for fort). The Scots were able to recapture this part of land on the 10th century and King Malcom III built a castle on Castle Rock, thus enabling the creation of a small town nearby. By the 12th century, Edinburg had become a considerable community.

Medieval Edinburgh made wool cloth, animal hides, cattle, sheep and grain. But the newly born city was in constant fight against the English, but by resisting and keep on growing it became Scotland’s capital in the 15th century. By 1550, Edinburgh had a population of 15,000, which meant a large town in those times. A bit earlier, in 1513, the Scots built a southern wall to defend from the English but they didn’t finish it until 1560. Since the 12th century, Scotland started building many castles for protection, some of them are ruins nowadays, but many others still offer a living to some lucky ones. Let’s take a look at some of them.


  • The first castle in Edinburgh was built in the 12th century, we are talking about the Edinburgh Castle, but it still is under construction, it has multiple buildings of different periods including 19th century barracks.
  • The Craigmillar Castle began its building in the 14th century, granted to Sir Simon Preston in 1374. Burnt by the English in 1543. The castle is in state care since 1946.
  • Cramond Tower was built in the 15th century and still remains a private residence after a 19th century restoration.
  • Dundas Castle, built in the 15th century, was used as a barrage balloon base during the Second World War.
  • Lauriston Castle was built in the 16th century and is owned by the City of Edinburgh’s Council, it is still in use and perfect shape.


  • The Palace of Holyroodhouse or Holyrood Palace is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II. It is on the opposite side to Edinburgh’s Castle and is a currently a setting for official entertaining. You must go and visit it.

Edinburgh is a beatiful city. It really deserves a visit of at least three complete days. In The Nomadvisor you have plenty of information about the city and many other parts of Scotland if you like. There is even a complete post on Where to stay in Edinburgh: Best areas and neighbourhoods. Take a look at it and plan your trip to Scotland now !

By | 2021-07-20T15:51:02+00:00 May 14th, 2019|History|0 Comments

Writing an Excellent Essay for History Homework

Title: Writing an Excellent Essay for History Homework

Ever wanted to know how to write a good essay for your history homework? A lot of students do not realise there is a structure. We are going to tell you all about it.

History Homework Help for Students

Are you a history student? Then you will already know how much homework you get every semester. Of course, as a social subject, there are always essays and papers to write for history. But sometimes you could do with a little help when it comes to making it good and ensuring you get a fantastic grade.

So, how do you write an essay for history home? Well, let’s find out.

Think About the Question

First of all, you need to spend some time thinking about the history question and what it is asking you to do. Pick out the keywords from the question. This is going to be your starting point. For example, there should be a clear topic and an instruction, such as ‘argue’ or ‘explain’. It is often the case that you have to pick a side or agree or disagree with the question. Think about what side you want to be on and stick to it when you do your research. It can also be beneficial to create a thesis statement. This is going to announce to your readers what you plan to do during the essay.

Focus on Quality Research

A history essay requires quality sources in order to back up your arguments. In particular, you will have the choice of using primary or secondary sources for your research. Most of the time, this will revolve around secondary materials, such as informational from historians commenting on the topic. But there will be some occasions when primary sources are beneficial. This is information that was created at the time of the events, such as a photograph or film. Always stay away from unreliable sources when you are writing your history homework, especially from the internet.

Take Notes and Make an Outline

Before starting your homework assignment, write down notes from your research. This is going to help you formulate an essay outline. This is going to be what you follow when you are writing your final essay. A lot of students rush into writing their paper without thinking about the sections they want to have. This is often how to get an essay that is mixed up and all over the place. So, take your time and create notes for your introduction, main body, and conclusion. If you do struggle to write your homework, you can always buy an essay online in Canada.

Construct Your Argument

The point of history homework is not only to answer the question but to also demonstrate your knowledge and research on the subject. This can be shown by constructing a good argument, using your facts to back up the points you want to make. You should make sure to split your arguments into different paragraphs so that they are easy to read, having a concluding sentence at the end of each. Be sure not to stray away from your thesis statement.

Do Not Forget the Conclusion

A lot of students are so glad to finish the history homework that they forget to write the conclusion. But this is one of the most important parts. This should summarise your main points and repeat your thesis statement. Always make sure you answer the question and state your opinion.

By | 2021-07-20T15:51:09+00:00 March 11th, 2019|History|0 Comments

The History of Business Cards

When Johannes Gutenberg introduced printing to Europe thanks to the invention of the printing press (15th century), nobody could imagine that this new machine would bring so many useful supplies and equipment, such as what we now call business cards. These presentation cards had even more meaning on the 17th century when they were created and so widely used. I bet not even Johannes Gutenberg, a German blacksmith, goldsmith and inventor could imagine that nowadays we could all buy thousands or millions of business cards from home thanks to a new service we now call: Online Printing.

As we said, on the 17th century business cards were widely used, of course not as much as today, but the vast majority of aristocrats in Europe had their own. They were more or less the size of a poker card of the 21st century, and sometimes the cards were engraved with gold and typefaces.

The 17th century visiting cards would be presented by aristocrat footmen to the servants at the home of a host to announce the arrival of a distinguished guest. And as we said, there were decorated with ornaments and sometimes elegant coat of arms.

By the 19th century, many more people started using them and in some houses it was a ‘must have’ thing, as a part of the century´s protocol. Many high class houses had silver card trays on the hall table along with a pencil and a piece of paper. Whenever somebody came they had to leave their cards there and therefore, in the future, it served as a catalog of those who had visited the house before.

According to Convey, during the Industrial era … ” with the rise of the middle class, a decrease in social formality, and more efficient modern printing techniques, visiting cards and trade cards eventually merged into the precursor to our modern business card. The “business card” became a must have item across both Europe and the United States. This shift, however, was not always smooth. Many in the upper class resisted this merger, creating awkward cultural and social divides. “

But what happened next, in the 20th century? Well as you might imagine, business cards became absolutely essential both for important people and all kind of companies. Every customer would ask for your business card and it would be very weird if your company or brand wouldn’t have one by the 1950’s. It became the established norm even for small businesses and corporate executives.

By the 1980’s a whole culture arose around business cards, nobody could leave home without carrying their own personal or brand business cards, there is even a scene in the American Psycho movie that represents the contagious lunacy that every business man suffered towards business cards.

But the point here is that it is now easier than ever to create the most trendy, fashionable and amazing business cards without having to resort to expensive printing professionals. You just have to make your own design with programs like Photoshop or look for an online printing company like HelloPrint to get the most amazing designs ever, and receive as many copies as you want directly at your home or office.

By | 2019-01-20T13:26:46+00:00 January 20th, 2019|History|3 Comments

Racism in History

According to Oxford Dictionaries Online, Racism is:  “Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.” And then there is another meaning: “The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races.”

Unfortunately, there has been racism since the beginning of history. And if you really get into it you will find facts that you did not want to know, for example, when you realize that even one of your favourite philosophers like the Greek Aristotle said that Greeks are free by nature while Barbarians (non-Greeks) are slaves because they are more willing to submit to a despotic government! This statement is published in a book by Kevin Reilly called ‘Racism: A Globar Reader’.

Just imagine how popular Aristotle would be if he had said that in 2019, he would probably lose all his credibility or would only be supported by the few racists that mingle with us in the 21st century. Or ar they not so few? Many people think that the United States of America, Spain or even Great Britain are still racist countries…

Racism in the United States has been there since the very beginning, we are talking about the Colonial Era. Only white Americans had privileges and rights while all other races had no rights at all. Education, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, etc, were exclusive privileges for white Americans. These kind of things remind us that we are true animals indeed, and that we don’t know anything about humans and how we really are. Racism in history still makes black people want revenge in America, let alone native Indians.

But black people and Indians weren’t the only ones who’ve suffered from racism throughout history, what about Jews after World War I ? Anti-semitism “was successfully exploited by the Nazi Party, which seized power in 1933 and implemented policies of systematic discrimination, persecution, and eventual mass murder of Jews in Germany and in the territories occupied by the country during World War II (see Holocaust)”, according to britannica.com.

Did you know that even National Geographic had a Racist Coverage for decades? And how do we know it? Because they have acknowledged it in an article by Susan Goldberg (Editor in Chief). This is what she wrote: “It is November 2, 1930, and National Geographic has sent a reporter and a photographer to cover a magnificent occasion: the crowning of Haile Selassie, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah. There are trumpets, incense, priests, spear-wielding warriors. The story runs 14,000 words, with 83 images. If a ceremony in 1930 honoring a black man had taken place in America, instead of Ethiopia, you can pretty much guarantee there wouldn’t have been a story at all. Even worse, if Haile Selassie had lived in the United States, he would almost certainly have been denied entry to our lectures in segregated Washington, D.C., and he might not have been allowed to be a National Geographic member.”

The architecture throughout history

Architecture exists since the first time someone had the idea of planning, designing and constructing a building of any type anywhere. Just think about it, when was the first time someone decided to change his own environment for good and with what knowledge? Who was the first architect on Earth? These are questions that might not have an answer but we are lucky we can enjoy buildings and constructions that can easily have more than 8,000 years of age…

When was Architecture created? It must have been during the Neolitic (more than 10,000 years BC), and thanks to this new type of men we now call architects, people could now become sedentary, as now they had new shelters, walls, houses and organized crops to be able to stay in a recently built town instead of having to move elsewhere from time to time. The era of moving from one place to another was a thing of the past.

These new constructions and buildings were created by men who could transform their environment into anything that was needed: a defensive castle, an independent or self-sufficient place, etc. People who had the ability of seeing these images on their head and making them real weren’t called architects yet, but now it is one of the most important professions in the world.

Then of course came the unbelievable constructions of the Ancient Mesopotamia with the Ziggurat of Ur, the Assyrian palace of Ashurnasrirpal II or the Ishtar Gate, which are buildings that can impress you even now, 5,000 years later.

Architecture was booming at that time, people with money wanted to become eternal and leave their footprint forever. This is how the pyramids of Giza were created or the Temple of Horus at Edfu, a typical example of Egyptian architecture.

But the trend wasn’t over yet, now it was time for the Greeks and their Agoras, surrounded by their buildings and temples. The Partenon in the Acropolis still rises as one of the most beautiful buildings of all time.

But what about the Colosseum or Coliseum? Romans took advantage of the architectural knowledge of the Greeks and even perfected it. The Roman’s aqueduct of Segovia is a good example of how important architecture can be to save or improve the lives of many people in towns and cities. The interior of the Pantheon in Rome, is also something that can amaze you now in 2018.

By then everybody knew that ‘something as external as a building could really have an impact on our daily mood’. Architecture was absolutely necessary by then and it’s still the same way today. Society needs good architects and especially the ones that go into things that aren’t mainstream like the professionals who choose to study a Master of architecture in Collective Housing.

There is such a competition nowadays that if you want to be the best you need to offer something different. This is why many students are now specialising themselves. A good example of this is what we said before: An architect that needs to specialize in Collective Housing or an Asian Historian who wants to specialize in Spanish History, for example. The fact remains, architecs are one of the most important professions today, at the same level as doctors. And from General-History we’d like to thank you all for your passion, time and effort.

By | 2018-12-21T16:57:27+00:00 December 21st, 2018|History|0 Comments

Spine problems?

Human beings have suffered spine problems throughout the ages. Fossilized evidence of bone straightening exists and the ancient Greeks perfected this art. Therefore, spine surgery is not new, whether used to correct back deformities in children or because some kind of surgical procedure was necessary. This was a far cry from the spine surgery we use today but it shows that we have always understood that bones can be straightened and corrected. (more…)

By | 2018-11-08T12:08:20+00:00 November 8th, 2018|History|0 Comments
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