Scotland’s many rulers

Only two Queens have been monarchs of Scotland, and one of them actually reigned as the official Queen of Scotland for twenty-five years before being betrayed by the Scots themselves and was finally beheaded by the English Queen Elizabeth – though she blamed her chief minister for the sad death of Mary, Queen of Scots, who had already been Queen of France too.

The other Scottish queen was known as the Maid of Norway, christened Margaret, who ‘ruled’ for only four years. She was an infant queen, granddaughter of Alexander III, and the only child of his daughter Margaret who died at birth. The father was King Erik of Norway, which explains the child’s nickname. When Alexander died in 1286, Margaret was the only direct survivor of the Scottish line of kings. The politicians betrothed her in 1289 (when she was three) to the infant Prince Edward, first Prince of Wales and son of Edward I of England, known as ‘The Hammer of the Scots’ by historians, and as ‘Longshanks’ by Mel Gibson. Luckily for the little girl she died at sea on the way from Norway to Britain at seven years of age. I say luckily because nothing was happy about the life of the young Edward (q.v.), who as Edward II made a mess of everything, married a charming French lady whose nickname (well deserved) was ‘The She-Wolf of France’; Edward preferred the social company of male favourites, and ended his life in prison, possibly murdered in a peculiarly horrible manner (sodomy by red-hot poker) as suggested by his own wife and her lover, Mortimer. In the 13th century, thrones and the nobility inspired little else but jealousy, incest, robbery and assassination.

Here is a dated list of the supremacy of Scottish rulers leading up to the accession to the English throne of James VI (of Scotland) and James I (of England) forming the United Kingdom.

1005/34                  Malcolm II

1034/40                  Duncan I (killed on the battlefield by . . .)

1040/57                  Macbeth

1057/8                    Lulach (I need some information about this brief ruler)

1058/93                  Malcolm III, Canmore

1093/4                    Donald III, Donald Bane (called Donalbain by Shakespeare, younger

brother of Malcolm)

1094                       Duncan II

1094/7                    Donald III, Donald Bane (again)

1097 – 1107            Edgar

1107/24                  Alexander I (married Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England)

1124/53                  David I

1153/65                  Malcolm IV, the Maiden (the nickname is supposed to derive from his well-

deserved reputation for chastity.

1165 -1214             William I, the Lion

1214/49                  Alexander II

1249/86                  Alexander III (killed in a riding accident)

1286/90                  Margaret the Maid of Norway (see Introduction)

1290/2                    No monarch

1292/6                    John Balliol (after whom a distinguished university college is named)

1296 – 1306            No monarch

1306/29                  Robert I, the Bruce (he of the tale of the spider)

1329/71                  David II

(Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, became King of Scots in September 1332 but was expelled in December: he was restored to the throne in 1333 and stayed on it for three years)

1371/90                    Robert II (effectively the founder of the House of Stuart)

1390 – 1406              Robert III

1406/37                     James I (captured at sea, he was a prisoner of the English for 18 years until

his release in 1424. He was good poet but acquisitive and vindictive;

He was murdered at Perth.

1437/60                    James II (he hated the super-powerful Douglas family, whom he finally

defeated in 1355. He was killed in the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the

English.

1460/88                    James III (defeated and killed by Scottish rebel nobles at the Battle of

Sauchieburn, near Stirling.

1488 – 1513              James IV (married Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of

England. This was truly the beginning of the Union of Scotland with

England. The French induced him to invade England, and he died along

with most of the Scottish aristocracy at the Battle of Flodden.

1513/42                    James V (he married first the daughter of Francis I of France, and after

her death Mary of Guise in 1538. He also attempted to invade England

but was thrashed at Solway Firth, after which he retired to Falkland Palace

in Fife, where he died after the birth of a daughter, Mary, later Mary

Queen of Scots.

1542/67                   Mary, Queen of Scots (beheaded at the orders of Cecil, chief minister

Of Elizabeth I of England, who denied having signed the Warrant).

1567 – 1625             James VI of Scotland and I of England.

 

 

 

 

 

Only two Queens have been monarchs of Scotland, and one of them actually reigned as the official Queen of Scotland for twenty-five years before being betrayed by the Scots themselves and was finally beheaded by the English Queen Elizabeth – though she blamed her chief minister for the sad death of Mary, Queen of Scots, who had already been Queen of France too.

The other Scottish queen was known as the Maid of Norway, christened Margaret, who ‘ruled’ for only four years. She was an infant queen, granddaughter of Alexander III, and the only child of his daughter Margaret who died at birth. The father was King Erik of Norway, which explains the child’s nickname. When Alexander died in 1286, Margaret was the only direct survivor of the Scottish line of kings. The politicians betrothed her in 1289 (when she was three) to the infant Prince Edward, first Prince of Wales and son of Edward I of England, known as ‘The Hammer of the Scots’ by historians, and as ‘Longshanks’ by Mel Gibson. Luckily for the little girl she died at sea on the way from Norway to Britain at seven years of age. I say luckily because nothing was happy about the life of the young Edward (q.v.), who as Edward II made a mess of everything, married a charming French lady whose nickname (well deserved) was ‘The She-Wolf of France’; Edward preferred the social company of male favourites, and ended his life in prison, possibly murdered in a peculiarly horrible manner (sodomy by red-hot poker) as suggested by his own wife and her lover, Mortimer. In the 13th century, thrones and the nobility inspired little else but jealousy, incest, robbery and assassination.

Here is a dated list of the supremacy of Scottish rulers leading up to the accession to the English throne of James VI (of Scotland) and James I (of England) forming the United Kingdom.

1005/34                  Malcolm II

1034/40                  Duncan I (killed on the battlefield by . . .)

1040/57                  Macbeth

1057/8                    Lulach (I need some information about this brief ruler)

1058/93                  Malcolm III, Canmore

1093/4                    Donald III, Donald Bane (called Donalbain by Shakespeare, younger

brother of Malcolm)

1094                       Duncan II

1094/7                    Donald III, Donald Bane (again)

1097 – 1107            Edgar

1107/24                  Alexander I (married Sybilla, illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England)

1124/53                  David I

1153/65                   Malcolm IV, the Maiden (the nickname is supposed to derive from his well-

deserved reputation for chastity.

1165 -1214             William I, the Lion

1214/49                  Alexander II

1249/86                  Alexander III (killed in a riding accident)

1286/90                  Margaret the Maid of Norway (see Introduction)

1290/2                    No monarch

1292/6                    John Balliol (after whom a distinguished university college is named)

1296 – 1306            No monarch

1306/29                  Robert I, the Bruce (he of the tale of the spider)

1329/71                  David II

(Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, became King of Scots in September 1332 but was expelled in December: he was restored to the throne in 1333 and stayed on it for three years)

1371/90                    Robert II (effectively the founder of the House of Stuart)

1390 – 1406              Robert III

1406/37                     James I (captured at sea, he was a prisoner of the English for 18 years until

his release in 1424. He was good poet but acquisitive and vindictive;

He was murdered at Perth.

1437/60                    James II (he hated the super-powerful Douglas family, whom he finally

defeated in 1355. He was killed in the siege of Roxburgh Castle by the

English.

1460/88                    James III (defeated and killed by Scottish rebel nobles at the Battle of

Sauchieburn, near Stirling.

1488 – 1513              James IV (married Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of

England. This was truly the beginning of the Union of Scotland with

England. The French induced him to invade England, and he died along

with most of the Scottish aristocracy at the Battle of Flodden.

1513/42                    James V (he married first the daughter of Francis I of France, and after

her death Mary of Guise in 1538. He also attempted to invade England

but was thrashed at Solway Firth, after which he retired to Falkland Palace

in Fife, where he died after the birth of a daughter, Mary, later Mary

Queen of Scots.

1542/67                   Mary, Queen of Scots (beheaded at the orders of Cecil, chief minister

Of Elizabeth I of England, who denied having signed the Warrant).

1567 – 1625             James VI of Scotland and I of England.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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